These prizes were awarded for the first time at
ICIAM 99,
held in Edinburgh.
At that time they were called the CICIAM Prizes.
The monetary value of the Prizes from 1999 to 2007 was $1,000 multiplied by the number
of supporting societies.
Beginning in 2015, the monetary value of each prize will be $5,000.
At the Opening Ceremony of the 2011 Congress held in Vancouver five ICIAM prizes were presented. (presentation)
The Prize Committee was chaired by Rolf Jeltsch,
the then-current President
of ICIAM.
Other members were:
The Collatz Prize was established to provide international recognition to individual scientists under 42
years of age for outstanding work on industrial and applied mathematics.
It was created on the initiative of GAMM, and first awarded in 1999.
Carrying a cash award of USD 1000,
the Collatz Prize is presently funded by GAMM.
Emmanuel J. Candès of Stanford University and of the California Institute of Technology
is awarded the 2011 ICIAM Collatz Prize in recognition of his outstanding contributions to
numerical solution of wave propagation problems and compressive sensing,
as well as anisotropic extensions of wavelets.
Emmanuel Candès is a professor on mathematics and statistics at Stanford University, on leave from the department of Applied and Computational Mathematics at the California Institute of Technology. He was born in 1970 in Paris, France. He received his diploma as an engineer from the École Polytechnique France in 1993 and the M.Sc. in applied mathematics from the Universities Paris VI and Paris IX in 1994. In 1998 he earned the Ph.D. from Stanford University.
Emmanuel Candès has accomplished various deep and brilliant mathematical works. First, in joint work with L.Demanet, he proposed and mathematically justified the first linear complexity method for the fast numerical solution of wave propagation problems. The analysis involved the proof that, within a curvelet representation, the propagation operator for the associated evolution problem is approximately equivalent to a permutation matrix, and that the compressed representation of the operator can be computed in O(N) operations. The significance of this result is only now beginning to be explored.
Then, in compressive sensing, together with David Donoho, Justin Romberg and Terence Tao, he developed a spectacular advance based on harmonic analysis, approximation theory and optimization. This result has been widely applied to image processing, sensor design, control and many other fields.
He identified the fundamental role of the restricted isometry property (RIP) in compressive sensing. He has also a major contribution to anisotropic extensions of wavelets, which has deeply advanced both applications and mathematical theory. In fact, concepts such as ridgelets, curvelets, chirplets and so on, are his inventions.
His work is highly innovative and shows off well his mathematically sophisticated talent. We are confident that it impacts widely-ranged fields of application. It should also be mentioned that he has served as the Ph.D. or the postdoctoral advisor for a number of excellent young mathematicians and that he himself performs as an important leader of scientific research.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Collatz Prize was:
The Lagrange Prize was established to provide international recognition to individual
mathematicians who have made an exceptional contribution to applied
mathematics throughout their careers.
It was created on the initiative of SMAI,
SEMA
and SIMAI and first awarded in 1999.
Carrying a cash award of USD 3000,
the Lagrange Prize is presently funded by the three member societies SMAI,
SEMA
and SIMAI.
Alexandre J. Chorin of University of California Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
receives the 2011 ICIAM Lagrange Prize in recognition of his fundamental and original contributions to
applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and turbulence modelling.
His methods for the numerical solution of Navier–Stokes equations stand at the basis of the most popular codes in computational fluid mechanics.
Alexandre J. Chorin is a professor of mathematics at the University of California Berkeley and also a member of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He was born in Warsaw, Poland, on 25 June 1938. He graduated from École Polytechnique Fédérale (EPFL) of Lausanne, Switzerland. He then received his M.S. and his Ph.D. from the Courant Institute of New York University.
Beginning with his pioneering work 40 years ago, Chorin developed some of the key mathematical and algorithmic ideas that underlie many of the most powerful computer codes in computational fluid dynamics, by blending mathematical intuition, physical insight and a deep attention to practical implementation.
In the mid 1960s, Chorin invented the Projection Method and the Artificial Compressibility Method. These techniques were the first practical and accurate methods for approximating the full Navier–Stokes equations. By performing careful numerical experiments along with theoretical convergence studies, Chorin has placed the numerical solution of complex flow on a solid mathematical foundation for the first time.
Chorin followed this with the invention and design of Vortex Methods, for which he was given the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Award in Applied Mathematics and Numerical Analysis. These techniques, based on the critical role of vorticity, are particularly suited to modelling the complex mixing and instabilities of turbulent flow. They allow the computation of the large transitory fluid structures critical to fluid mixing, wake development and chemical transport.
In addition to the above work, Chorin was one of the pioneers in the development of high resolution methods for gas dynamics and combustion, in particular through his work on random-choice methods. Chorin has also made profound contributions to the application of methods of modern physics to turbulence modelling, numerical path integration, numerical methods for front motion, the kinetic theory of gases, phase transitions and Monte-Carlo methods.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Lagrange Prize was:
The Maxwell Prize was established to provide international recognition to a
mathematician who has demonstrated originality in applied mathematics.
It was created on the initiative of the IMA
(with the support of the
J.C. Maxwell Society),
and first awarded in 1999.
Carrying a cash award of USD 1000,
the Maxwell Prize is presently funded by IMA.
Vladimir Rokhlin of Yale University has been selected for the 2011 ICIAM Maxwell Prize for his work on fast multipole methods
which have revolutionized fields like numerical electromagnetism for radar and molecular dynamics for chemistry.
Vladimir Rokhlin is a professor in the Computer Science Department and the Mathematics Department of Yale University. He was born in Voronezh, Russia on 4 August 1952 and received his M.S. in Mathematics in 1973 at the Vilnius University in Lithuania. He earned his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics at Rice University in 1983.
Vladimir Rokhlin has had a profound impact on scientific computing and applied mathematics, most notably in developing "analysis-based fast algorithms". These include the fast multipole method for the Laplace equation, the fast multipole method for the Helmholtz equation, and the non-equispaced fast Fourier transform and also most recently in randomized matrix compression schemes. He has also made fundamental contributions to inverse scattering and to approximation theory.
Rokhlin was the first person who took a systematic approach to combining approximation theory, the classical theory of special functions, and modern computer science to reduce the computational cost associated with handling the basic integral operators of mathematical physics. Earlier fast algorithms (like the fast Fourier transform) had had great impact, but they were brittle. They had required uniform data structures and could not cope with complex geometries. An interesting consequence of the approximate nature of this new class of methods is that they are more flexible as well as being more robust.
His work on Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) has been cited as one of the ten algorithmic revolutions of the second half of the 20th century. These methods have revolutionized fields like numerical electromagnetism for radars and molecular dynamics for chemistry because the computing time to solve the problems is drastically reduced. For instance, for an airplane described by ten thousand points the radar cross-section can be computed in forty thousand operations instead of the millions of billions by earlier methods. FMM depends heavily on mathematical analysis and proper computer implementation and here too Vladimir Rokhlin has had a major role. By his close contact as advisor to industries and his interests for applications and above all his mathematical genius he has also produced exceptional Ph.D. students.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Maxwell Prize was:
The Pioneer Prize was established for pioneering work
introducing applied mathematical methods and scientific computing
techniques to an industrial problem area or a new scientific field
of applications.
It was created on the initiative of SIAM, and was first awarded in 1999.
Carrying a cash award of USD 1000,
the Pioneer Prize is presently funded by SIAM.
James Albert Sethian of the University of California Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
receives the 2011 ICIAM Pioneer Prize for his fundamental methods and algorithms which have had a large impact
in applications such as in imaging and shape recovery in medicine, geophysics and tomography and drop dynamics in inkjets.
James Albert Sethian is a professor of mathematics at the University of California Berkeley and a member of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He was born on 10 May 1954. He received the B.A. in Mathematics from Princeton University in 1976 and earned his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from the University of California Berkeley in 1982. Sethian has done pioneering work in applied mathematics. He introduced with Andrew Majda a widely used asymptotic analysis of combustion. The level set method pioneered by Sethian and S.Osher has had a very major impact on many fields of application, and is one of the most widely used new algorithms of the past few decades. Sethian's algorithms for imaging and shape recovery in medical scanning devices are imbedded in current medical imaging workstations. He developed tools for solving Hamilton–Jacobi equations with applications in geophysics and tomography, including problems with multiple arrivals. Sethian has created startlingly accurate numerical methods of drop dynamics for use with inkjets. This extraordinary range of successes is made possible by Sethian's unparalleled eagerness to learn thoroughly the engineering aspects of problems he works on, the accuracy and depth of his feelings for mathematical structure, and his broad mathematical knowledge. His body of work is emblematic of what an applied mathematician should aspire to achieve.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Pioneer Prize was:
The Su Buchin Prize was established to provide international recognition of an outstanding contribution by an
individual in the application of Mathematics to emerging economies and human development,
in particular at the economic and cultural level in developing countries.
It was created on the initiative of the CSIAM,
and is being awarded for the second time.
Carrying a cash award of USD 1000,
the Su Buchin Prize is presently funded by CSIAM.
Edward Lungu of the University of Botswana receives the 2011 ICIAM Su~Buchin Prize for his mathematical modelling
of problems related to Africa and his fundamental contribution to developing teaching, research and organizational structures
for applied mathematics in Southern Africa.
Edward Lungu is a professor of mathematics at the University of Botswana, in Gabarone, Botswana. His first degree came in 1975 from the University of Zambia. A Master's degree and also his 1980 Ph.D. followed, being awarded by the University of Bristol. Edward Lungu has been described as a ``fundamental person'' in the development of teaching and research in applied mathematics in Southern Africa. As founder and leader of SAMSA (Southern Africa Mathematical Sciences Association) and later of AMMSI (the Millenium Initiative) he has simply done everything that one person could do: organized, encouraged, supervised, and led by his personal example in teaching and research. For Botswana itself Professor Lungu has developed models in:
The subcommittee for ICIAM Su Buchin Prize was:
At the 2007 Congress in Zürich five ICIAM prizes were presented.
The Prize Committee was chaired by Ian Sloan,
the then-current President
of ICIAM.
Other members were:
The Pioneer Prize was established for pioneering work introducing applied mathematical methods and scientific computing techniques to an industrial problem area or a new scientific field of applications. The prize commemorates the spirit and impact of the American pioneers.
It was created on the initiative of SIAM, and was first awarded in 1999.
The Pioneer Prize is presently funded by SIAM.
The ICIAM/SIAM Pioneer Prize is awarded to Ingrid Daubechies, Princeton
University, Princeton, USA, for her pioneering work in applied mathematics and
applications. Her work is a permanent contribution to mathematics,
science and engineering and has found widespread use in image processing
and time frequency analysis.
Daubechies best known achievement is her construction of compactly supported wavelets in the late 1980s. Since that time she has advanced the development of biorthogonal wavelet bases. These bases are currently the most commonly used bases for data compression. Daubechies name is widely associated with the biorthogonal CDF wavelet. Wavelets from this family are currently used in JPEG2000 for both lossless and lossy com pression. Her continuing wavelet research also resulted in path-breaking work including the discovery of Wilson bases. This discovery led to the existence of cosine packet libraries of orthonormal bases and Gaussian bases. These are now standard tools in time frequency analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations.
The ICIAM/SIAM Pioneer Prize is awarded to Heinz Engl, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria and Austrian Academy of Sciences, for his work on the applications of theoretical work in inverse problems to the solution of a wide range of industrial problems; for his promotion worldwide of industrial/applied mathematics problem solving; for his initiative to include very active applied mathematics components in the Austrian Mathematical Community; and for the founding of the Austrian Academy of Sciences sponsored RICAM, the Radon Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. Professor Engl's vigorous activity enables and promises many exciting new opportunities for applied mathematics and industrial problem solving.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Pioneer Prize was:
The Collatz Prize was established to provide international recognition to individual scientists under 42 years of age for outstanding work on industrial and applied mathematics.
It was created on the initiative of GAMM, and first awarded in 1999.
The Collatz Prize is presently funded by GAMM.
Felix Otto is among the premier applied analysts of his generation. As an analyst, he has made fundamental contributions in areas ranging from micromagnetics, to coarsening rates during phase separation, to mass transportation problems. His work has given these areas a sense of clarity and definitiveness that has gone far beyond the reach of existing heuristic arguments.
In a series of papers, some joint with Cantero-Alvarez, Antonio Desimone, Bob Kohn and Stefan Müller, Felix Otto and co-workers have analyzed the Landau-Lifshitz model of micromagnetics in considerable detail.
It is through the work of Felix Otto and his co-workers that we now understand the scaling and the energy landscape of this complex problem in many different regimes.
Felix Otto's work is a unique combination of deep physical insight, sophisticated scaling and heuristic arguments, and above all deep and interesting analysis. His work is applied analysis at its very best — applying rigorous analysis to clarify issues that were previously confused, and providing fresh insight through the introduction of entirely new models and methods.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Collatz Prize was:
The Lagrange Prize was established to provide international recognition to individual mathematicians who have made an exceptional contribution to applied mathematics throughout their careers.
It was created on the initiative of SMAI, and first awarded in 1999.
The Lagrange Prize is presently funded by SMAI, SEMA
and SIMAI.
Professor J.B. Keller is an internationally renowned applied mathematician of the highest quality, a scientist who has deeply influenced the course of modern applied mathematics. In the last 50 years he has made many original and profound contributions that span the most varied areas of modern science. His contributions to applied mathematics have had great impact in science and engineering as well as in pure mathematics. He developed the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction that provided the first systematic description of wave propagation around edges and corners of an obstacle. It has been widely used for radar reflection from targets, elastic wave scattering from defects in solids, acoustic wave on in the ocean radar and many other fields. It also served as a starting point for development of the modern theory of linear partial differential equations. Keller developed the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) method to determine energy levels of atoms and molecules in quantum mechanics and to solve characteristic value problems in other fields. As part of this work, he derived the Keller-Maslov index for the change in a wave as it passes along a caustic. He has also made important and often seminal contributions to many other fields, including singular perturbation theory, bifurcation studies in partial differential equations, nonlinear geometrical optics and acoustics, inverse scattering, effective equations for composite media, biophysics, biomechanics, carcinogenesis, optimal design, hydrodynamic surface waves, transport theory and waves in random media.
Keller combines a very special creativity in the development of mathematical techniques with deep physical insight. He has the ability to describe real-world problems by simple yet realistic mathematical models, to create the sophisticated techniques to solve these problems and to explain the results and their consequences in simple terms. He has greatly influenced several generations of applied mathematicians, including more than 50 PhD students, many postdoctoral researchers, and a large number of co-workers.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Lagrange Prize was:
The Maxwell Prize was established to provide international recognition to a mathematician who has demonstrated originality in applied mathematics.
It was created on the initiative of the IMA
(with the support of the
J.C. Maxwell Society),
and first awarded in 1999.
The Maxwell Prize is presently funded by IMA.
Professor Peter Deuflhard's contributions to applied mathematics have a breadth, depth and originality that is almost without parallel. His contributions to algorithm-oriented numerical analysis are fundamental and range from highly nonlinear algebraic systems through large-scale ordinary and partial differential equations to Markov chains. Within these fields they cover direct and inverse problems, optimization aspects and optimal control. Characteristic of his work is that he always lays a firm, often innovative, mathematical basis on which he constructs highly efficient algorithms for hard real-life problems in science and technology. His style of research has revolutionized scientific computing, a large number of highly reputed scholars follow his tracks.
The range of application areas in which Peter Deuflhard has contributed is stunning. Among them are (just in recent years):
The efficiency of his algorithms typically originates from new mathematical and algorithmic concepts that Peter Deuflhard has both invented and designed. Let me mention a few of them:affine invariant Newton and Gauss-Newton techniques, from small nonlinear algebraic systems (e.g., in multiple shooting or collocation methods for boundary value problems for ODEs) to adaptive multilevel finite-element methods for PDEs; extrapolation methods for ordinary differential equations (order and step-size control for non-stiff, stiff, and differential-algebraic equations, linearly implicit methods for stiff and differential equations); discrete Galerkin methods for countable differential equations (important in polymer chemistry); cascadic multigrid methods; and, most recently, Perron cluster analysis.
Professor Deuflhard collaborates intensively with engineers, physicians, practitioners, and scientists in many different fields. He was quintessential in forming modern scientific computing as a field integrating a wide range of applied mathematicians, computer and other scientists aiming at a fundamental understanding of phenomena and processes by combining mathematics and computing technology.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Maxwell Prize was:
The Su Buchin Prize was established to provide international recognition of an outstanding contribution by an individual in the application of Mathematics to emerging economies and human development, in particular at the economic and cultural level in developing countries.
It was created on the initiative of the CSIAM,
and will be awarded for the first time in 2007.
The Su Buchin Prize is presently funded by CSIAM.
Gilbert Strang has made great contributions in many areas of pure and applied mathematics, including finite-element methods, linear algebra and matrix theory, wavelet analysis, signal and image processing, geodesy and telecommunications. He has also made remarkable contributions to the promotion of mathematical research and education in developing countries, and has had significant impact on human development in the area of mathematics. He has visited China eight times, and during these visits has spent much time in discussing mathematics and sharing teaching experiences with many chinese students, researchers and teachers. His book An Analysis of the Finite Element Method (with George Fix, Prentice-Hall, 1973) has been very popular in China since it was published, and is still influential now. He has visited many other developing countries, including Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore (5 trips), Brazil, Mexico (4 trips), Tunisia, South Africa, Egypt, India, Korea and Cyprus etc. As President of SIAM from 1999 to 2000 he made efforts to extend SIAM membership in Asia, and helped to plan, arrange and organize visits by US-based mathematicians to Vietnam and to Africa. He also made significant contributions to the National Academy of Sciences document Report on Advanced Mathematics in Africa: Opportunities for Capacity Building. Through MIT's OpenCourseWare his educational materials are available on the web, free-of-charge to any user anywhere in the world. In this way Gilbert Strang's dream to effectively promote mathematics and its education in developing countries, in particular in regions that are hard to reach, becomes true. He has devoted much time on creating, improving and promoting his popular web course on Linear Algebra in an effort to better serve his audience.
In summary, Gilbert Strang has made himself one of the most recognized mathematicians in the developing countries. His great contribution in mathematics, and his dedication to advancing public awareness of the power and potential of mathematics, have made outstanding contributions to human development, which have benefited many students, teachers and mathematicians. Gilbert Strang well deserves the ICIAM Su Buchin Prize.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Su Buchin Prize was:
Each prize has its own subcommittee, chaired by one member of the Prize Committee. These subcommittees work independently, but the final decision is made by the Prize Committee as a whole. Members of Prize subcommittees were made public at the time the Prize winners were announced; these are listed below.
Each prize has its own profile. Their specifications and recipients were as follows:
The ICIAM Lagrange Prize for 2003 was awarded to Professor Enrico Magenes, Università di Pavia, for his contributions to the development of Applied Mathematics at the worldwide level.
In a remarkable series of papers, followed and made complete in a three-volume book in cooperation with J.L. Lions (Nonhomogeneous Boundary Value Problems and Applications), he set the foundations for the modern treatment of partial differential equations, and in particular the ones mostly used in applications. This includes the systematic treatment of variational formulations, as well as the paradigm ``regularity-results-transposition-interpolation,'' and allows a fully detailed use of the properties of trace spaces. The book has been the reference book for more than thirty years, for the completeness of the results reported there, but even more for the strategy of approach to problems. After that, the scientific activity of Magenes moved even further in the direction of application. In the early seventies he founded the Institute of Numerical Analysis in Pavia, which he directed for more than twenty years, keeping it in close contact with the top level scientific institutions all over the world, and making it the source of a number of highly successful scientists and of several pioneering results.
Apart from his continuous inspirational influence, he contributed personally to the development of a totally new technique for treating free boundary problems by means of variational inequalities, with remarkable applications to several important problems such as the flow of fluids through porous media or the phase-change phenomena. But even if his own results have been of paramount importance, his major merit is surely in the impulse he gave, and the influence he had in starting, encouraging and sustaining a way of doing mathematics that joined the rigour, the elegance and the deepness of so-called pure mathematics with the real-life problems that have to be faced in applications. If the combination of pure mathematics and applications is what Applied Mathematics is nowadays, Magenes is surely among the ones that deserve most credit.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Lagrange Prize was:
The ICIAM Collatz Prize for 2003 is awarded to Professor Weinan E, Princeton University, as a scientist under 42 years of age having already an outstanding scientific reputation in the field of industrial and applied mathematics.
Weinan E was born in 1963 in China where he also finished his bachelor and master degrees. He received his PhD from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1989 (under Björn Engquist). He was a long-term member of the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton from 1992 to 1994 and became a professor at the Courant Institute at New York University in 1994. In 1999, he moved to Princeton University where he holds a professorship in the Department of Mathematics and in the Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics. In 1996 he received the US Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, and in 1999 he was awarded the Feng Kang Prize for Scientific Computing.
The scientific work of Weinan E covers many areas of applied mathematics ranging from fluid dynamics to condensed matter physics, including incompressible flows, turbulence, statistical physics, superconductivity, liquid crystals and polymers, epitaxial growth, and micromagnetics. His early contributions were in the field of homogenization of fully nonlinear wave equations, and multiscale problems has remained one of his major fields until today. In his subsequent work on liquid crystals he provided a geometrically nonlinear continuum model, which allowed for a first explanation of the formation of filaments in the smectic-isotropic transition. In micromagnetics he devised, partially together with Garcia, Wang and Gimbutas, new numerical algorithms for finding solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz- Gilbert equation. Thus, for the first time fast-switching processes and the hysteresis effect in ferromagnetic materials can be simulated reliably and efficiently.
Weinan E is a scientist of exceptional vision and scope. His work is a sophisticated combination of modeling, mathematical analysis, and numerics, and it is always devoted to providing new insights into real-world processes.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Collatz Prize was:
The ICIAM Pioneer Prize for 2003 was awarded to Professor Stanley Osher, University of California, Los Angeles, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to applied mathematics and computational science — particularly his work on shock-capturing schemes, PDE-based image processing, and the level-set method.
Professor Osher's work on shock-capturing schemes for conservation laws has been extremely influential in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the late 1970s and early 1980s he developed, with various collaborators, monotone and total-variation-decreasing (TVD) schemes which quickly became very popular. Later, with collaborators, he introduced essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes, which have found widespread use in compressible CFD. Further developments include WENO schemes, and shock-capturing methods for solving Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Osher's work with L. Rudin on total-variation- based image restoration was among the first applications of PDE methods to image processing. This work has been very influential, stimulating mathematical research on PDE-based image analysis, and leading to the development of related methods for various inverse problems. It has also had commercial success through the activities of Cognitech, a company founded by Osher and Rudin.
His work on level-set methods represents a fresh, very powerful approach to the numerical solution of evolutionary free-boundary problems. In the late 80s, with J. Sethian, Osher addressed the propagation of codimension-one fronts with curvature-dependent speed. Since then, with various collaborators, he has addressed a wide variety of related problems, developing techniques for handling nonlocal velocity laws, triple junctions, and higher-codimension sets. He has, moreover, demonstrated the value of these techniques by applying them to problems from materials science, geometry, and fluid dynamics.
This Pioneer Prize recognizes Professor Osher for his many deep and novel mathematical contributions, which have had remarkable impact on computational science.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Pioneer Prize was:
The ICIAM Maxwell Prize for 2003 was awarded to Professor Martin D. Kruskal, Rutgers University, for discovering the particle-like behaviour of solitary waves, which he named `solitons'; for introducing the inverse scattering transform method of solving the initial-value problem for the KdV equation; and for many other contributions to applied mathematics.
Martin David Kruskal was born in New York in 1925. He did his first degree at the University of Chicago and obtained his PhD from New York University in 1952. He then moved to Princeton, first to Physics and later to Mathematics. Since 1989 he has held the David Hilbert Chair of Mathematics at Rutgers University.
Martin Kruskal is most famous for the invention of the inverse scattering transform method. The key discovery was the particle-like behaviour of solitary wave solutions of the Korteweg de Vries equation; Kruskal named these waves `solitons' and showed how they could be used to solve initial value problems for a whole class of nonlinear partial differential equations. This work has led to a host of further developments by Kruskal and others and has transformed the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations. Kruskal has also done seminal work in plasma physics and astrophysics; in particular he has shown that the singularity of the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity is not an actual singularity of the geometry but is an apparent singularity due to the coordinate system. More recently he has returned to pure mathematics and the study of surreal numbers.
Kruskal's work has already been recognized; he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, foreign member of the Royal Society of London and the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and has been awarded a number of prizes including the President's National Medal of Science in 1993. It is very appropriate that the international applied mathematics community should now acknowledge Martin Kruskal's achievements by the award of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize.Professor Nalini Joshi accepted the prize on behalf of Martin Kruskal.
The subcommittee for ICIAM Maxwell Prize was:
Other members were:
For each CICIAM Prize there was a subcommittee consisting of six members whose names were confidential up to the award ceremony. A series of outstanding nominations were submitted for each of these prizes so that the choice of the awardees was a rather difficult task for the CICIAM Prize Committee and its subcommittees. CICIAM is deeply indebted to the members of these committees for their excellent work.
At the 1999 Congress the four CICIAM prizes were awarded as follows:
The CICIAM Lagrange Prize is awarded to Professor Jacques-Louis Lions (College de France and Academie des Sciences de Paris, France) in recognition of his exceptional contributions to applied and industrial mathematics throughout his career.
Jacques-Louis Lions is one of the most distinguished and influential scientists in the domain of applied and industrial mathematics in this century. He has made outstanding contributions in many areas and has opened large classes of new problems and methods. To give only a few examples one should mention first the systematic use of functional analysis and weak solutions for solving elliptic and parabolic differential equations, both theoretically and numerically, further the various methods he developed for solving nonlinear problems and his profound studies on control problems for systems governed by partial differential equations, optimal control first and controllability later with the introduction of the now standard Hilbert Uniqueness Method. He made essential contributions to singular perturbations and, jointly with Alain Bensoussan and Georges Papanicolaou, developed the theory and methods of homogenization. In collaboration with Roger Temam and S.H. Wang he recently wrote major articles on mathematical models of climatology and meteorology about which he presented an invited lecture at ICIAM 95 in Hamburg. Those examples are taken from more than 500 articles and 20 books. His famous book on ``Quelques methodes de resolution des problemes aux limites nonlineaires'' is still a basic reference and a source of problems thirty years after it was published. A similar statement holds for the celebrated ``Lions-Magenes'' books. The more recently published ``Dautry-Lions'' book series on ``Mathematical analysis and numerical methods for science and technology'' which covers the development of modern mathematical methods, seen from the angle of applications, up to the designing of computer programmes, has become a fundamental reference for mathematicians, physicists and engineers.
Jacques-Louis Lions has founded and developed an important school of applied mathematics in France with a strong influence in many other countries. He has participated in many industrial programmes, for example as President of the Institut de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, INRIA, and later of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, CNES. He has been President of the International Mathematical Union, IMU, and President de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris.
The subcommittee for CICIAM Lagrange Prize was:
The CICIAM Collatz Prize for 1999 is awarded to Professor Stefan Müller (Max Planck Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften) as a scientist under 42 years of age in recognition of his outstanding early contributions to applied mathematics.
Stefan Müller, born in 1962, studied mathematics and physics in Bonn, Edinburgh, and Paris. In 1994, at the age of 32 years, he became full professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany, and shortly later vice director of the famous Mathematical Research Center in the Black Forest. In 1995 he was appointed to a full professorship at the ETH Zürich in Switzerland. Since 1996 he is one of the three directors of the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig, Germany.
The scientific work of Stefan Müller is distinguished by highly original and profound contributions to applied mathematics, calculus of variations and nonlinear partial differential equations, the mechanics of continua, and mathematical material sciences. In these fields he is one of the leading scientists in the world. His papers on the mechanics of continua cover a broad spectrum of topics, like homogenization in materials, cavitation in gummy materials, and completely new existence theorems in nonlinear elasticity concerning the geometry of microstructures.
In nonlinear elasticity he proved new integrability properties of determinants with gradients as entries. This led to a breakthrough with respect to numerous problems characterized by critical growth properties. In joint work with Vladimir Sverak, he discovered that already for harmless looking variational problems with smooth, strictly convex Lagrangians, there exist highly irregular extremals that are Lipschitz-continuous, but not differentiable. In the last years, Stefan Müller made substantial and highly original contributions to the mathematical theory of microstructures. This concerns, for example, solid-state phase transitions in elastic crystals.
Stefan Müller is one of very few young mathematicians in the world who combine high-quality mathematical skills with a feeling for real-world problems. This kind of scientific work should be promoted and is recognized by the CICIAM Collatz Prize.
The subcommittee for CICIAM Collatz Prize was:
The CICIAM Pioneer Prize for 1999 was awarded to Professor Ronald R. Coifman (Yale University) and Professor Helmut Neunzert (Universität Kaiserslautern) for different kinds of significant contributions to applied mathematics.
Ronald Coifman was being honored for his pioneering work in exploiting harmonic and, especially, wavelet analysis to provide new computational methods and algorithms in a wide variety of important contexts involving signal and image processing. This research, which has been conducted over the last twenty years in collaboration with Yves Meyer of Paris, former colleagues Gregory Belykin and Vladimir Rokhlin at Yale, and other prominent mathematicians, relies on the classical theories of Calderon and Zygmund and the use of function spaces and singular integral operators. Applications have included FBI data files for fingerprints and many other problems involving compression and/or restoration of images and sound.
Professor Neunzert is being honored for his work over the last twenty years in developing the ``techno-mathematics'' both as a scientific discipline and as a curriculum, now offered in more than twenty-five universities, and for his work in developing the specifications of industrial mathematics through active consulting and modeling, in playing a leading role in the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry, and in founding and directing the Fraunhofer Institute for Techno- and Econo-mathematics at Kaiserslautern. Many, but by far not all of his collaborations with industry were in his own scientific field of the kinetic theory of gases and the Boltzmann equation. The vigorous and expanding international activity involving the mathematical modeling of industrial problems owes much to Professor Neunzert's inspiration, energy, and example. It promises many new opportunities to use mathematics.
The subcommittee for CICIAM Pioneer Prize was:
The CICIAM Maxwell Prize for 1999 was awarded to Professor Grigory Isaakovic Barenblatt (University of California at Berkeley and Cambridge University) in recognition of his outstanding originality in his work in applied mathematics.
Grigory Barenblatt is one of the most distinguished Russian applied mathematicians. He is well-known for his numerous contributions to the mathematical theory of fluid motion, solid structure, nonlinear waves, scaling and asymptotics. His two dominant interests are the clear understanding of the mathematical underpinnings of various methods of applied mathematics and physics, and the analysis of problems dominated by complexity, such as turbulence, failure and cracks in solids, flow in porous and inhomogeneous media, and combustion.
Grigory Barenblatt has constructed a deep relation between nonlinear waves and general scaling arguments, and related the occurrence of anomalous exponents to the occurrence of waves whose speed depends on their internal structure. His methods of intermediate asymptotics make it possible to draw concrete conclusions in situations where the scaling is anomalous. Among the many applications of this deep and amazing theory are the scaling of turbulence, the analysis of failure in solids, the dynamics of reservoirs and the analysis of stratification in geophysical fluid mechanics.
His recent work on scaling in turbulence is of enormous significance. The Barenblatt model of crack formation and the ``Barenblatt zone'' are among the most basic ideas in the theory of cracks; the Barenblatt correlations are the basic tools in the analysis of failure, especially failure due to fatigue. His theory of particulate transport in turbulence is the cornerstone of this subject. His work on flow in porous media is of the same high significance. The range of Barenblatt's achievements is truly breathtaking.
Though all of his work is extremely original, the development of the theory of incomplete similarity, in particular its unexpected applications in fluid mechanics as well as its relation with renormalization, is probably the most original aspect of this work; the most original part of an original corpus.
The subcommittee for CICIAM Maxwell Prize was: